Diesel Engines are going to be vanished..... - Tech updates

Diesel Engines are going to be vanished.....

Diesel fuel was (In past) touted across parts of the world as a readily available solution to increase fuel economy. Diesel engines were praised as heavy-duty, hardworking, fuel-sipping engines that were great for some of the hardest jobs and heaviest machinery — hauling, clawing through the dirt, and driving long distances. Their reputation as efficient and long-lasting engines made them a popular choice across Europe, one of the world's largest car markets. They were supported by government incentives and embraced by major automakers. For a while, it looked like diesel engines could be one of the best available technologies for reaching ambitious fuel economy targets.

Then the case for diesel seemed to crash. Cities, where diesel engines were common, struggled with extremely high levels of air pollution. Global health authorities determined diesel fuel be carcinogenic. In 2015, German automaker Volkswagen, one of the world's largest car companies, shook the industry when executives admitted the company had cheated on diesel emissions tests. Executives were fired and jailed. Volkswagen was on the hook for billions in fines and payouts, and some wondered whether the scandal spelled the beginning of the end for diesel engines themselves.

The hybrid and electric vehicles are increasing, and they are the best new hope for providing low emission or even emission-free transportation and equipment. But diesel advocates say diesel is not done yet. It is still widely used in heavy machinery and commercial applications. Companies are developing new technology, such as pollution filtering systems and renewable biofuels that could keep diesel relevant and widely used for years to come, even as solutions for reducing toxic emissions. Within the truck market, the diesel is a huge player as far as, the number of vehicles that we produce with diesel, certainly in heavy-duty. And there's a constant desire for more capability.

The diesel engine was named for its creator, Rudolf Diesel, a Paris-born son of Bavarian immigrants. Diesel was an engineer who worked on refrigeration technology during the day, but in his spare time, nursed ideas for an engine more efficient than the typical designs of his time. He designed an engine that worked like conventional internal combustion engines, but with a few crucial differences. In an internal combustion engine, diesel or otherwise, fuel and air combined inside a cylinder chamber where they combust. The explosion pushes a piston, which turns a crankshaft and ultimately turns the wheels that move a vehicle.

In a typical gasoline engine, a sparkplug ignites the fuel and air mixture inside the cylinder, But Rudolf Diesel engines show that no spark was compulsory. His design simply compressed the air in the cylinder to the point that the air was so hot it would cause the fuel to combust, as soon as it was injected into the cylinder. Diesel's basic design innovations are still seen in diesel engines today. The design of the diesel engine gives it some of the advantages so appreciated by fans. Diesel engines tend to get better fuel economy than gasoline engines, sometimes much better. And they can also deliver a great deal of power to the wheels at low speeds, making them excellent for heavy machinery and vehicles that need to haul, whether that be freight trucks, construction equipment, or trains.

Diesel fuel is also different from gasoline, and it is more energy-dense, meaning more energy can be extracted from diesel than can be extracted from the same amount of gas. Diesel gets about, on an average basis, about 30 percent more energy-efficient than comparable gasoline vehicles. So that comes from two things. The fuel itself has more energy potential in it, and then the engine burns that fuel more efficiently. So those two things together make diesel the most energy-efficient internal combustion engine. Over time, their fuel-saving potential made them highly desirable choices in countries where governments were trying to reduce carbon emissions. Lower carbon dioxide emissions were one of the reasons the European Union began pushing the fuel in the 1990s.

Around the time climate change became a serious global issue and countries began signing on to major global carbon reduction agreements, such as 1997's Kyoto Protocol. 

For a long time through most of the 90s and into the 2000s and a lot of countries in Europe, diesel was the majority, represented the majority of light vehicle sales. In some markets like in Italy, it got as high as 90 percent of the market was diesel engines. And Germany and France were also very popular. But that, in North America, diesel never really caught on quite as much, except during periods where we tended to have very high fuel prices. However, diesel engines do have their drawbacks. Whereas diesel engines are good with the low-end torque, it is easier to get higher horsepower in a gasoline engine. That is why diesel engines are typically found on large trucks and heavy machinery but seldom found on sports cars or race cars. There have been other drawbacks that eventually gave diesel a bad reputation they are still battling today. Overall, diesel engines produce less Co2 than gasoline-burning engines, helped by the fact that they burn less fuel.  However, they produce higher concentrations of other hazardous pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides and very tiny particles, commonly referred to as PM 2.5.

The European countries that embraced diesel considered it a tradeoff, sacrificing some losses in air quality for gains in CO2 reduction. Many European countries put tax advantages in place to encourage diesel engine adoption. These incentives sent diesel car sales skyrocketing throughout Europe. But over time, cities such as Paris showed signs of dangerously high pollution. European emissions standards have restricted pollutants such as nitrogen oxide since at least the 2000s. But for years, laboratory tests were easy to exploit, as the European Environment Agency noted in a 2019 report. In 2012, the World Health Organization said it considered diesel exhaust carcinogenic. Several studies over the years have shown harmful levels of nitrogen oxides and other pollutants in European cities, often high above legally allowed limits.

Perhaps the biggest hit to diesel's reputation was the cheating scandal that rocked Volkswagen and other automakers beginning in 2015. The German carmaker, one of the largest in the world, had been heavily invested in diesel fuel and marketed for its fuel economy benefits. But starting in 2015, revelations began to surface that the company had installed software in cars designed to manipulate emissions test results. These defeat devices were able to recognize when a car was being lab tested, as opposed to being driven in real-world conditions and thus calibrate the engine to cheat the test by temporarily producing emissions low enough to comply with regulations. The cars outfitted with these devices once were releasing pollutants that far exceeded legal limits. Volkswagen has had to pay roughly 35 billion dollars since 2015 and penalties, fines, settlements, and other payouts. The scandal seems to have marked a turning point in Europe's history with diesel. Following the Volkswagen scandal, diesel sales did drop off dramatically in Europe, even though it was still more cost-effective to drive a diesel engine there. It has dropped significantly. Globally, between 2016 and 2018, while overall vehicle sales and electric vehicle sales increased globally by about one percent.

Diesel engine sales dropped by about nine percent globally in that same timeframe, Of course, in Europe, where diesel was most popular, it dropped off the most. In 2015, diesel's share of new passenger cars in Europe was about 51 percent. By 2018, that share had fallen to 36 percent. That is the lowest share of total new car registrations since 2001, according to industry data firm JATO Dynamics. Association with the high profile VW scandal hurt diesel's reputation. But perhaps even worse was the talk among European politicians of banning internal combustion cars entirely, including diesel, from major cities. The UK  is going to ban the sales of both diesel and gasoline engines up to 2035.

France is also going to stop the sale of internal combustion cars by 2040. Other companies such as Volvo and Nissan have also planned to either reduce their share of diesel vehicles or phase them out entirely. In the wake of the scandal, VW made a pretty sharp turn toward electrification. The company is going to produce at least 1 million electric based cars. Of course, there is hardly an automaker in the world that isn't moving into electric vehicles. That poses some real competition for diesel engines, even larger vehicles such as buses and delivery trucks can run well on electric and hybrid power trains. Encroaching on territory diesel once had pretty much to itself. Vehicles that operate in a local area like trash trucks, buses are increasingly shifting towards electric power trains. Local authorities are buying a lot more electric buses because they're cleaner, quieter or more efficient, cheaper to operate.
Companies like Amazon that operate huge fleets of delivery vehicles says those FedEx and UPS and Amazon vans that deliver all its packages to you, those are traditionally been powered by diesel engines. But, you know, that starting to change now. Amazon invested $800 million last year in an EV startup called Rivian, and UPS and FedEx are doing... they're also buying a lot more electric vans. So for local operations where those vans are coming back to a depot at night, it's easy to plug those in and charge them overnight. Not a big deal. For now, diesel is still everywhere. Most of the farm equipment in the United States runs on it. It is still very common in heavy construction, mining, shipping, and marine transport, and much of public transit. Though companies such as Tesla are venturing into electric long-haul trucks, diesel is still the powertrain of choice for that sector. The last place where you'll likely see diesel is in those long-haul trucks where it's still a challenge. You need so much battery in those things to go electric with those.

You know, they're driving, you know, thousands of miles across the continent, that it's gonna be a while before those get electrified. But, you know, the emissions, the diesel emissions are less of a problem with those because they tend to be out more out in rural areas when you're driving across the country. Whereas, you know, diesel emissions aren't...where they are a bigger problem is in urban areas. Most of the urban delivery vehicles are going to be electric. The long-haul stuff is going to stay diesel for a while yet, but probably by the late 2020s, we'll start seeing those going electric as well. Diesel advocates say it is too soon to count the fuel out and there may be further opportunities for growth. Companies are developing technology that can reduce the emission of the harmful pollutants that have run diesel into trouble before. All diesel engines sold in the United States ultra-low sulfur diesel, which is a form of the fuel that contains a tiny fraction of the sulfur contained in older forms.

It will help in reducing pollution by allowing fuel reducing devices to be fitted. Today we know that operating on the nation's roads that about 43 percent of all commercial vehicles registered and operating is the newest generation of diesel. So that means they have the full suite of particulate control and advanced selective catalytic reduction systems, diesel exhaust fluid, et cetera, that enable them to achieve near-zero emissions. Companies are also investing in renewable biofuels, which are refined from crops or organic waste. Many diesel engines can now use a blend of 20 percent renewable fuel and 80 percent petroleum-based diesel, commonly called biodiesel but known more technically as B20. Some are going even further and using entirely renewable fuels and diesel engines. The city of San Francisco converted it's fleet of municipal vehicles to totally renewable diesel fuel.

The advanced renewable biofuels, like biodiesel, enabled the carbon footprint to be reduced from a diesel engine by anywhere from an additional 20, up to as much as 80 percent, if you're using the most refined and advanced processing of those biodiesel feedstocks. Diesel also appears to have crept back into a few key segments that are especially popular among American consumers and profitable for American automakers: pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles. Diesel engines provide greater efficiency, greater range. And a light-duty diesel, you can drive from going Duluth to Dallas on one tank of fuel, compared to gas —35 miles per gallon on the highway. And if you look at the torque curve, the torque curve is a very low R.P.M.

In 2019, all three U.S. automakers had, for the first time in years, at least one diesel, full size, half-ton pickup truck in their lineups. Diesel engines are options on many mid-sized pickups trucks and some great options for those that like off-roading and Jeep. The Wrangler and the Gladiators are also having diesel engines which are options. So we get a lot of grunt for those folks that do a true off-roading activity. Diesel's low-end torque is a kind of thing that that that segment likes. So I think there great opportunities for diesel in the light vehicle segment in these bigger vehicles and these performance veterans. Much of the auto industry is betting that the future is electric. To change the Industry in all-electric will be a long term task. The diesel industry is betting consumers and governments will want effective solutions they can deploy along the way.

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